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Psychology Homework

Psychology Homework

A minimum of 100 words each and References Response (#1 – 6) KEEP RESPONSE WITH ANSWER EACH ANSWER NEED TO HAVE A SCHOLARY SOURCE with a Hyperlink

Make sure the Responses includes the Following: (a) an understanding of the weekly content as supported by a scholarly resource, (b) the provision of a probing question. (c) stay on topic

1. A categorical approach is an approach that classifies mental disorders through assessment. Whether an individual may have the disorder based on symptoms and characteristics, in which can be described as typical type of disorder. The categorical approach is classified in two strategies ICD and DSM. ICD identifies symptoms, that indicate the presence of a disorder. The DSM names the disorder and defines them in specific terms (Potuzak et a.l, 2012).

A dimensional approach is an approach that classifies mental disorders that measures a person’s symptoms. Many other characteristics of interest are represented with numerical values, that are measured on one or more scales or continuums and are not just assigned to a mental disorder category. The dimensional approach provides detailed information for each symptom, with a significant number of factors that are taken in to account. I think this approach is best to classify disorders symptoms are actually measured. The categorical approach, I think can lead to misdiagnoses. The reason being is just because symptoms are displayed does not mean someone has a personality disorder, there should be more measured research to show what the true issues are (Comer, 2018) .

2. Both the DSM-5 and the DSM (IV-TR), were created in order for clinicians to classify and diagnose disorders within an individual. The DSM(IV-TR) was described as a multiaxial approach, intended to assist with comprehensive evaluations of a client’s overall level of functioning (Whitbourne, 2013). This version derived disorder using five different dimensions, as the idea was mental illness often can impact one across many different life areas. The newer DSM-5 essentially eliminated what was considered a cumbersome five axis diagnostic system; this included rating each client according to criteria other than their primary disorder (Whitbourne, 2013). Another positive for DSM-5 is that it reorganized and eliminated some disorders that no longer made sense,

Personally, I support he categorical approach as there are more buckets and ways to look at metal illness across all areas of life. I also think that it is the best in classifying personality disorders is the SDM-IV-TR approach. This approach looks at personality disorders in how an individual relates to the world, including antisocial and histrionic personality disorders (Whitbourne, 2013).

3. The dimensional approach of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is better because it gives the severity of personality traits rather than the presence or absence of specific traits. People with a personality disorder are those who display extreme degrees of problematic traits. DSM-5 overlap so much that clinicians often find it difficult to distinguish one disorder from another, resulting in frequent disagreements about which diagnosis is correct for a person with a personality disorder (Comer, 2018). The categorical model assumes each personality disorder is a separate and distinct category. For example, separate from other personality disorders, and distinct from “normal” personalities. The categorical approach assumes a lot can be wrong or not wrong with someone, which is why the dimensional approach makes it more clear. Lets say you have a dog, that dog is a husky, which is a type of wolf. To further explore the history of this dog, one has to look into it’s traits to see why we have categorized it as a wolf breed. This is just like the dimensional approach to a disorder, to see what other reasons someone is or isn’t paranoid, antisocial or has obsessive- compulsive (OCD).

4. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is classified as a spectrum disorder because there is a wide variation of how the disorder affects people (Comer, 2018) Autism spectrum disorder is a very hot topic of debate for many individuals and each one has a differ in opinion on what causes the disorder. However, it is not really known what causes autism spectrum disorder it is said that it could be because of genetic factors or even environmental factors. The symptoms of autism can vary depending on the individual. I have a nephew who has autism spectrum disorder and the symptoms that he has are difficulties being in large rooms of people he doesn’t know, sound aversions, texture aversions, repetitive aversions, repetitive behavior, and restricted interests. Trying to find solutions to make an individual who has autism spectrum disorder life easier can vary as well. My nephew goes to behavior therapy to help him learn how to communicate with those around him, and new people.

5. Autism Spectrum Disorder can present in a variety of degrees. The most common features are extreme aloofness, inability to share attention with others, lack of interest in other people, low empathy levels, poor language skills or failure to speak, and rigid behaviors, activities, and interests (Comer, 2018). Recent biological and psychological studies point to cognitive limitations and brain abnormalities as the primary causes (Comer, 2018). Boys are much more likely than girls to have ADS and if one sibling has it the chances are around 20% for other siblings to develop ASD. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, communication training, and parent training are some of the treatments for ASD (Comer, 2018). Unfortunately, these treatments are mostly geared toward skill development because ADS is generally a life-long condition.

6. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is when a child shows signs of being unresponsive and has trouble communicating with others. “These symptoms appear early in life, typically around 3 years of age (Comer, 2018).” The symptoms for this disorder can be different for every child. Some children show symptoms of being unresponsive in social situations. These children may lack interest in certain activities and can be hard for them to give attention to others. “Many people with the disorder have great difficulty understanding speech or using language for conversational purposes (Comer, 2018).” “More recent work in the psychological and biological spheres has persuaded clinical theorists that cognitive limitations and brain abnormalities are the primary causes of the disorder (Comer, 2018).” Theorists look toward these two causes for this disorder because they explain more about the causes of this disorder. The psychological cause for this disorder focuses more on the brain and the way the child is thinking. Most children develop a way of thinking and reading other people, but children with ASD have a harder time doing this. The biological cause focuses more on the genetic standpoint and birth complications. If a child is born with a certain abnormality within the brain, this can lead to this disorder. Some treatments for this disorder would be cognitive-behavioral therapy, communication training, parent training, and community integration. These treatments aim to help the child and the family understand this disorder and learn how to function everyday. Every treatment focuses on the child and helps them feel like everybody else and not left out.

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