1. Freud, Piaget, and others viewed life as a series of stages. In contrast, Fromm and Rogers saw it as a process. How could these differing viewpoints affect perceptions of personality?
2. Early psychologists were medical doctors or scientists. By the middle part of the twentieth century, philosophers and theologians added their ideas to the study of personality. How would a viewpoint that encompasses these elements affect perceptions about personality?
3. Identification with a subculture in childhood and adolescence may help individuals become well-adjusted later. Using Sullivan’s idea of “chumship,” what does this help us understand about personality?