Your Perfect Assignment is Just a Click Away

We Write Custom Academic Papers

100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Customized to your instructions!

glass
pen
clip
papers
heaphones

Does Physical Punishment Have Different Effects in Different Cultural Contexts?

Does Physical Punishment Have Different Effects in Different Cultural Contexts?

Psychologists typically recommend against the use of physical punishment with children, largely due to research showing a relationship between the use of physical punishment and increased aggressiveness on the part of a child. In addition, as you have seen in this chapter, there are many alternative ways to manage behavior successfully.

As is the case with many types of psychological research, however, the classic studies on physical punishment and child aggression were conducted with middle-class, white American families. How representative are these samples of families in general? Some researchers believe that they are not representative and that physical punishment effects depend very much on cultural context (Deater-Deckard & Dodge, 1997). These researchers believe that physical punishment in cultures in which it is considered “normal” has a much less detrimental effect than in cultures where it is considered less normal.

Racial and ethnic groups vary in the frequency with which they use physical punishment (Gershoff, Lansford, Sexton, Davis-Kean, & Sameroff, 2012). In a sample of over 11,000 U.S. families with kindergarten-aged children, rates of spanking were generally high (about 80%) across all groups, with 89% of African Americans, 79% of whites, 80% of Hispanics, and 73% of Asians reporting having spanked their child. When asked if they had spanked their child in the previous week, 40% of African Americans, 28% of Hispanics, 24% of whites, and 23% of Asians reported that they had done so.

Does spanking have different effects on children’s behavior across the racial and ethnic groups due to these different frequencies? Gershoff et al. (2012) concluded that it does not. Across all racial and ethnic groups, spanking was associated with higher levels of aggressive behaviors in the child, which in turn leads to more spanking in a “coercive cycle” of parenting.

Psychologists have wondered if spanking had different effects within different racial and ethnic contexts, but it does not. Spanking is associated with higher levels of child aggression, regardless of racial or ethnic context.

Sandro Di Carlo Darsa/PhotoAlto/Alamy Stock Photo

While many lines of research benefit from considerations of diversity, the message here is not modified by racial or ethnic identity—spanking children not only fails to decrease negative behaviors, but it actually appears to increase them.

In early industrial settings, workers were often paid by the piece, a real-world example of the use of an FR schedule. In other words, workers would be paid every time they produced a fixed number of products or parts on an assembly line. Most workers find this system less than ideal. If the equipment malfunctions, the worker cannot earn money. Lunch breaks would also then be viewed as loss of income rather than a helpful time of rest. Some examples of piecework remain today, including the work of most physicians, who get paid by the procedure, and service workers like plumbers or hairstylists, who get paid for finishing a specific task.

Order Solution Now

Our Service Charter

1. Professional & Expert Writers: Writers Hero only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by Writers Hero are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. Writers Hero is known for timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At Writers hero, we have put in place a team of experts who answer to all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.