Your Perfect Assignment is Just a Click Away

We Write Custom Academic Papers

100% Original, Plagiarism Free, Customized to your instructions!

glass
pen
clip
papers
heaphones

Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Distinct Disorder or Symptom of Borderline Personality Disorder?

Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Distinct Disorder or Symptom of Borderline Personality Disorder?

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves deliberate damage to body tissue such as might occur with skin cutting or burning (Nock, 2009 ). This behavior (which is sometimes called self-mutilation) occurs in the absence of an intent to die (hence the term nonsuicidal). Self-mutilating behavior has long been listed in the DSM as a symptom of BPD. However, many people who engage in self-injury do not have BPD, although they do report high levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, suicidality, and generally low levels of functioning (Selby et al., 2012 ). People who engage in NSSI are also at elevated risk for later suicide (Wilkinson et al., 2011 ). For these reasons, the DSM-5 task force was charged with determining whether people who display a significant amount of nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior should be diagnosed with a new disorder that would called “nonsuicidal self-injury disorder”.

NSSI is found in males and females, as well as in people of all ethnicities and economic backgrounds. However, the risk for NSSI seems to be greatest in the adolescent years. One Finnish study reported a 11.5 percent prevalence rate in young people aged 13–18. And an Internet-based study of college students at two U.S. universities found a lifetime prevalence of 17 percent. Perhaps most shocking were the results from a U.S. study of 10-to 14-year-old girls that found a lifetime prevalence of NSSI of 56 percent (Hilt et al., 2008 ).

Why do people hurt themselves by cutting or burning? Tension relief is one reason that many people give. NSSI is often used to regulate intense or extreme emotions. Hooley et al. ( 2010 ) have also found that people who engage in NSSI tend to have higher pain endurances than the rest of us. In addition, they have a highly self-critical cognitive style and “may regard suffering and pain as something they deserve” (Hooley et al., 2010 , p. 170). This may help explain why such people choose to regulate their emotions by engaging in behaviors that are self-damaging and painful.

NSSI is a growing problem. Recognizing this, it has now been added to DSM-5. NSSI disorder is listed in Section III, which is used to describe conditions in need of further study. This move is likely to stimulate research. As we learn more we may be in a better position to understand, treat, and perhaps even prevent this increasingly prevalent condition.

In addition to affective and impulsive behavioral symptoms, as many as 75 percent of people with BPD have cognitive symptoms. These include relatively short or transient episodes in which they appear to be out of contact with reality and experience delusions or other psychotic-like symptoms such as hallucinations, paranoid ideas, or severe dissociative symptoms (Lieb et al., 2004 ; Paris, 2007 ; Skodol, Gunderson et al., 2002 ).

Estimates are that only about 1 to 2 percent of the population may qualify for the diagnosis of BPD (Lenzenweger et al., 2007 ), but they represent about 10 percent of patients in outpatient and 20 percent of patients in inpatient clinical settings (Lieb et al., 2004 ; Torgersen et al., 2001 ). Although early research found that approximately 75 percent of individuals receiving this diagnosis in clinical settings are women, such findings likely arise from a gender imbalance in treatment seeking rather than prevalence of the disorder. In support of this, more recent epidemiological studies of community residents suggest an equal gender ratio (Coid et al., 2009 ; Grant et al., 2008 ; Hooley et al., 2012 ).

Order Solution Now

Our Service Charter

1. Professional & Expert Writers: Writers Hero only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by Writers Hero are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. Writers Hero is known for timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At Writers hero, we have put in place a team of experts who answer to all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.