Identifying a Researchable Problem
Nurses are essential key players within the healthcare delivery system. Research plays a vital role in nursing in terms of the current and future directions of healthcare. In order for any research to be successful a strategy needs to be in place. The researcher must have specific questions which are answerable as it pertains to the problem in question. Researchers must rely on successful studies to acquire accurate literature in order to provide useful and credible information. This can be accomplished by formulating a list of keywords and background questions. The purpose of this paper is to identify and summarize a problem of interest, develop a PICOT question with back ground questions and identify keywords that will aid in researching the proposed problem.
Problem of Interest
According to (Martha, Karp, Bauer, Raghavan, Terrin and Zwicker, 2012) over 30 percent of women in the study of 500, women ages 25-40 who takes oral contraceptives versus Intra Uterine Devices (IUD) or no birth control are at a greater risk of having a venous thromboembolic event. Venous thromboembolic events can be a life threating medical problem. The risk of these thromboembolic complications can cause serious issues and is very important to bring awareness to women within the ages 25-40. According to (Lidegaard, Lokkegaard, Jensen, Skovlund and Keiding, 2012) studies have shown that thromboembolic complications ranges from myocardial infarction, thrombolytic stroke and even pulmonary embolism.
Studies suggest that before women consider taking any form of birth control whether its oral or an implanted device to be well informed of potential risk factors. Risk factors includes smoking, obesity, and a family history of thrombosis. These risk factors will increase a woman chances of developing a thromboembolic complication when taking oral contraceptive.
The acronym PICOT is a tool used to break down clinical questions into searchable keywords (Davies, 2011, p. 75). The acronym PICOT stands for (P) Patient/Population, (I) Intervention, (C) Comparison, (O) Outcome and (T) Time. Composing a question using PICOT is more methodological and provides more of an effective search. The proposed research question for his project is: Are women ages 25-40 (P) who take oral contraceptives (I) at greater risk for developing blood clots (O) compared with women ages 25-40 (P) who use IUDs for contraception (C) over a 5-year time frame (T)?
Background questions are general in nature, they form the foundation of a clinical question (Polit & Beck,2012, p.33). The following are background questions that will aid in answering the proposed PICOT question.
· What are oral contraceptives?
· Types of oral contraceptives?
· What is a Intra Uterine Device (IUD)?
· Risk factors for taking contraceptives?
· Complications associated with contraceptives?
The first three questions are geared towards background information on the proposed problem. The fourth question will identify the population with the greatest risk factors for the proposed problem. Last question forms the main focus of the final paper.
Supporting Literature and Keywords.
Keywords are important terms used to search on a database to enhance a research for supporting literature (Polit & Beck ,2012. p.732). The keywords: Blood clots, oral contraceptives, Intrauterine Device, thrombosis, randomized, nonrandomized, thromboembolic events, systematic reviews, study and risk were used in multiple search engines to acquire information for this paper. Systematic review, critically appraised topics, and critically appraised individual articles fall under filtered information. Filtered resources offered more detailed information, eliminates poorly done studies and asks specific clinical questions and attempt to make practical recommendations as it pertained to my PICO question. Unfiltered resources provide access to randomized control trials, cohort studies and case report. Unfiltered resources were limited in terms of the quantity of information found pertaining to my PICO question.
Thromboembolic events are serious issues that relates to oral contraceptives. Nurses plays a very vital role not only as a patient advocate be nurses. Nurses are the major players in keeping patients informed about potential risk of any medication. Nurses provide patients with educational tips and resources. The formulation of a PICOT question can aid in a successful high quality research.