Integrative Personality Theory
Personality is the traits that make an individual unique, these traits justify the behavior of a person. Some personality traits are possessed by one person making them unique. There are several theories of personality. The theories of personality entail different concepts, such as psychodynamic model concept, self-psychology model concept, etc. In this paper, I will look at seven major concepts of personality: Psychodynamic, Neurobiological, Behavioral, Cognitive, Interpersonal, Trait, and the Self-Psychology Model Concepts. There are billions of people with unique personalities in the world therefore we have billions of different personalities and although many of them might seem alike. The main question in this paper is “How is personality formed?” this paper will explain the different ways personality can be formed.
Psychodynamic model is Freud’s psychoanalysis that human behavior is dictated by the Unconscious, subconscious and/or conscious. Psychodynamic means the interrelation of the unconscious and conscious mental and emotional forces that determine personality and motivation.
Internal forces called instincts motivate human behavior. These instincts are also called drives, there are two major instincts. Life and death instincts, life instincts are the ones where one seeks pleasure and/or intent to satisfy basic needs. Death instincts are the unconscious desires to die.
The psychodynamic model is focused more in the unconscious forces that determine behavior. There are several assumptions of the psychodynamic model. Assumption number one is when behavior is influenced by the unconscious mind. Assumption two is there are different levels of consciousness: conscious (what we are aware of), preconscious (if we pay attention we can be conscious of this) and unconscious (inaccessible). Assumption three is ego defense mechanism, the ego protects itself from unconscious thoughts. Assumption four is the early childhood experiences and relationships, the events in childhood shape an individual’s personality. Also, relationships with parents create a template for adult relationships.
Han Selye is known for his work on the effect stress has on the human body. He was the first to observe the effects stress has in the human “One of the problems in those that have suffered severe, childhood abuse is that the brain’s turn-off switch for the stress response is disabled.”[Men13]
High levels of cortisol can cause epigenetic changes. The consequences of these traumatic changes cause a person to experience depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among other personality disorders. Humans are not built to live in high levels of stress therefore our physical and mental health are damaged when exposed to high stressors.
This model shows that in order to determine the mental health of a patient we must look at the body as a whole as well. The medical field needs to treat the mind and vice-versa mental health providers need to treat and acknowledge the body health as well.
Healthy and Unhealthy Personalities
A healthy person is one who shows normal behavior such as eating, emotional sensitivity and talking while an unhealthy personality is one of a person who lacks all of these. In terms of psychology a person who scores high in neuroticism is a person with an unhealthy personality. In my opinion a person with a high ego tends to have a healthier personality than one with a low ego, my explanation to this conclusion is because people with a high ego tend to interact with other more often than those with a low ego.
Heredity, the Environment, and Epigenetics
Through epigenetics psychologists and psychiatrists can learn how to treat a patient’s disorder. The study called “The Great Rat Mother Switcheroo” (Webster, 2013) is a study where a rat mother’s affection levels towards their rat babies can affect their DNA, this process is called epigenetics. I find this study incredibly amazing because the first stages of an infant’s life are extremely important to the point where neglecting can change a person’s DNA.
The rat babies of high-licking mothers showed to be less stressed than those with low-licking mothers. Some might have asked that it might have been a hereditary factor therefore in the study researchers decided to put high-licking mother’s babies with low-licking mothers and vice-versa. As expected the results showed those with low-licking foster mothers were more stressed later in life than those with high-licking foster mothers.
Assessment and Measurement
What are the primary ways of assessing and measuring used in some of the concepts that you have chosen to include? This section is not due until the final submission.
This class has definitely helped me alter my views (as if they were not already altered) on other people. I used to think that other people’s behavior was influenced by their environment and maybe personality had little to do with it. Now I understand that a person’s behavior is influenced by their DNA, environment and specially their personality traits.