SPECIFICATION OF THE CONTENT DOMAIN AND RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE INTERCULTURAL EFFECTIVENESS SCALE (IES)
The 21st century is one of unremitting globalization. The bumper sticker wisdom that implores, “think globally, act locally,” has become a reality and a necessity for educators, businesspeople, politicians, scientists, journalists, entertainers, athletes, and inventors alike. Globalization is an ever-increasing social complexity that arises from the ongoing integration of cultural, technological, political, social, and business processes that results in a teeming, unpredictable, ambiguous, ever-changing context that must be squarely faced by everyone—but especially educators and businesspeople (Lane, Maznevski, & Mendenhall, 2004). For example, globalization has caused educators to consider how to develop in students of all ages a better understanding of the world and its various cultures, and the need to develop competencies within their students that will allow them to live and thrive in a complex, ever-changing, globalized environment. Similarly, globalization has caused many CEOs to aggressively reposition their companies to deal with the unparalleled cross-border trade and investment, continual and rapid change in technological advances, ongoing shifts in global products and consumers, higher global standards in production and quality, and the inherent unpredictability in markets that characterize the complexity we call “globalization.” “How do we develop people who can thrive in the context of globalization?” First, it is necessary to understand and delineate the competencies associated with thriving in global contexts. What competencies do people possess who exhibit success in living and working in cross-culturally complex situations? And, what clues can these “global leaders” give us in terms of educating and developing people who can be successful in the age of globalization? Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of scholars have been studying effective global leaders and attempting to delineate the competencies that are critical to their success. Reviews of this literature (Bird & Osland, 2004; Jokinen, 2005; Mendenhall, 2001; Mendenhall & Osland, 2002; Osland, 2008; Osland, Taylor, & Mendenhall, in press) find that social scientists have delineated over fifty competencies that influence global leadership effectiveness; however, many of these competencies overlap conceptually and are often separated only by semantic differences in the labels given them by researchers (Jokinen, 2005; Osland, 2008). The reviews also indicate clearly that global leadership is a multi-dimensional construct. After analyzing the findings of the above reviews, we found that the framework developed by Mendenhall and Osland (2002) to categorize the numerous competencies found within the global leadership literature continues to be relevant to current research in the field, and elegantly conceptually organizes the numerous global leadership competencies into six core dimensions of competencies. They labeled these six dimensions, respectively: cross-cultural relationship skills, traits and values, cognitive orientation, global business expertise, global organizing expertise, and visioning When these six dimensions of global leadership competencies were compared to the literature of expatriate effectiveness, it was found that there was a significant overlap between three of the competency dimensions of global leadership (cross-cultural relationship skills, traits and values, cognitive orientation) and the competencies that are important to living and working in a foreign country as an expatriate (Jokinen, 2005;
Mendenhall, 2001; Mendenhall & Osland, 2002; Osland, Bird, Mendenhall, & Osland, 2006; Osland, 2008). The six competency dimensions can be conceptually divided between those that involve competencies directly related to intercultural interaction at the person and small group level, cross-cultural relationships, cognitive orientation, traits and values (which are critical to expatriate effectiveness), and those that involve the mastery of more macro, global business knowledge and skills (global business expertise, global organizing expertise, visioning).