Understanding the cultural context of illness experience is essential for effective diagnostic assessment and clinical management. Culture refers to systems of knowledge, concepts, rules, and practices that are learned and transmitted across generations. Culture includes language, religion and spirituality, family structures, life-cycle stages, ceremonial rituals, and customs, as well as moral and legal systems. Cultures are open, dynamic systems that undergo continuous change over time; in the contemporary world, most individuals and groups are exposed to multiple cultures, which they use to fashion their own identities and make sense of experience. These features of culture make it crucial not to overgeneralize cultural information or stereotype groups in terms of fixed cultural traits.
Race is a culturally constructed category of identity that divides humanity into groups based on a variety of superficial physical traits attributed to some hypothetical intrinsic, biological characteristics. Racial categories and constructs have varied widely over history and across societies. The construct of race has no consistent biological definition, but it is socially important because it supports racial ideologies, racism, discrimination, and social exclusion, which can have strong negative effects on mental health. There is evidence that racism can exacerbate many psychiatric disorders, contributing to poor outcome, and that racial biases can affect diagnostic assessment.
Ethnicity is a culturally constructed group identity used to define peoples and communities. It may be rooted in a common history, geography, language, religion, or other shared characteristics of a group, which distinguish that group from others. Ethnicity may be self-assigned or attributed by outsiders. Increasing mobility, intermarriage, and intermixing of cultures has defined new mixed, multiple, or hybrid ethnic identities.
Culture, race, and ethnicity are related to economic inequities, racism, and discrimination that result in health disparities. Cultural, ethnic, and racial identities can be sources of strength and group support that enhance resilience, but they may also lead to psychological, interpersonal, and intergenerational conflict or difficulties in adaptation that require diagnostic assessment.
Outline for Cultural Formulation
The Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) is a set of 16 questions that clinicians may use to obtain information during a mental health assessment about the impact of culture on key aspects of an individual’s clinical presentation and care. In the CFI, culture refers to
· The values, orientations, knowledge, and practices that individuals derive from membership in diverse social groups (e.g., ethnic groups, faith communities, occupational groups, veterans groups).
· Aspects of an individual’s background, developmental experiences, and current social contexts that may affect his or her perspective, such as geographical origin, migration, language, religion, sexual orientation, or race/ethnicity.
· The influence of family, friends, and other community members (the individual’s social network) on the individual’s illness experience.
The CFI is a brief semistructured interview for systematically assessing cultural factors in the clinical encounter that may be used with any individual. The CFI focuses on the individual’s experience and the social contexts of the clinical problem. The CFI follows a person-centered approach to cultural assessment by eliciting information from the individual about his or her own views and those of others in his or her social network. This approach is designed to avoid stereotyping, in that each individual’s cultural knowledge affects how he or she interprets illness experience and guides how he or she seeks help. Because the CFI concerns the individual’s personal views, there are no right or wrong answers to these questions. The interview follows and is available online at www.psychiatry.org/dsm5.
The CFI is formatted as two text columns. The left-hand column contains the instructions for administering the CFI and describes the goals for each interview domain. The questions in the right-hand column illustrate how to explore these domains, but they are not meant to be exhaustive. Follow-up questions may be needed to clarify individuals’ answers. Questions may be rephrased as needed. The CFI is intended as a guide to cultural assessment and should be used flexibly to maintain a natural flow of the interview and rapport with the individual.
The CFI is best used in conjunction with demographic information obtained prior to the interview in order to tailor the CFI questions to address the individual’s background and current situation. Specific demographic domains to be explored with the CFI will vary across individuals and settings. A comprehensive assessment may include place of birth, age, gender, racial/ethnic origin, marital status, family composition, education, language fluencies, sexual orientation, religious or spiritual affiliation, occupation, employment, income, and migration history.
The CFI can be used in the initial assessment of individuals in all clinical settings, regardless of the cultural background of the individual or of the clinician. Individuals and clinicians who appear to share the same cultural background may nevertheless differ in ways that are relevant to care. The CFI may be used in its entirety, or components may be incorporated into a clinical evaluation as needed. The CFI may be especially helpful when there is
· Difficulty in diagnostic assessment owing to significant differences in the cultural, religious, or socioeconomic backgrounds of clinician and the individual.
· Uncertainty about the fit between culturally distinctive symptoms and diagnostic criteria.
· Difficulty in judging illness severity or impairment.
· Disagreement between the individual and clinician on the course of care.
· Limited engagement in and adherence to treatment by the individual.
The CFI emphasizes four domains of assessment: Cultural Definition of the Problem (questions 1–3); Cultural Perceptions of Cause, Context, and Support (questions 4–10); Cultural Factors Affecting Self-Coping and Past Help Seeking (questions 11–13); and Cultural Factors Affecting Current Help Seeking (questions 14–16). Both the person-centered process of conducting the CFI and the information it elicits are intended to enhance the cultural validity of diagnostic assessment, facilitate treatment planning, and promote the individual’s engagement and satisfaction. To achieve these goals, the information obtained from the CFI should be integrated with all other available clinical material into a comprehensive clinical and contextual evaluation. An Informant version of the CFI can be used to collect collateral information on the CFI domains from family members or caregivers.
Supplementary modules have been developed that expand on each domain of the CFI and guide clinicians who wish to explore these domains in greater depth. Supplementary modules have also been developed for specific populations, such as children and adolescents, elderly individuals, and immigrants and refugees. These supplementary modules are referenced in the CFI under the pertinent subheadings and are available online at www.psychiatry.org/dsm5.
Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI)
Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI)—Informant Version
The CFI–Informant Version collects collateral information from an informant who is knowledgeable about the clinical problems and life circumstances of the identified individual. This version can be used to supplement information obtained from the core CFI or can be used instead of the core CFI when the individual is unable to provide information—as might occur, for example, with children or adolescents, floridly psychotic individuals, or persons with cognitive impairment.
Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI)—Informant Version Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI)—Informant Version
Cultural Concepts of Distress
Cultural concepts of distress refers to ways that cultural groups experience, understand, and communicate suffering, behavioral problems, or troubling thoughts and emotions. Three main types of cultural concepts may be distinguished. Cultural syndromes are clusters of symptoms and attributions that tend to co-occur among individuals in specific cultural groups, communities, or contexts and that are recognized locally as coherent patterns of experience. Cultural idioms of distress are ways of expressing distress that may not involve specific symptoms or syndromes, but that provide collective, shared ways of experiencing and talking about personal or social concerns. For example, everyday talk about “nerves” or “depression” may refer to widely varying forms of suffering without mapping onto a discrete set of symptoms, syndrome, or disorder. Cultural explanations or perceived causes are labels, attributions, or features of an explanatory model that indicate culturally recognized meaning or etiology for symptoms, illness, or distress.
These three concepts—syndromes, idioms, and explanations—are more relevant to clinical practice than the older formulation culture-bound syndrome. Specifically, the term culture-bound syndrome ignores the fact that clinically important cultural differences often involve explanations or experience of distress rather than culturally distinctive configurations of symptoms. Furthermore, the term culture-bound overemphasizes the local particularity and limited distribution of cultural concepts of distress. The current formulation acknowledges that all forms of distress are locally shaped, including the DSM disorders. From this perspective, many DSM diagnoses can be understood as operationalized prototypes that started out as cultural syndromes, and became widely accepted as a result of their clinical and research utility. Across groups there remain culturally patterned differences in symptoms, ways of talking about distress, and locally perceived causes, which are in turn associated with coping strategies and patterns of help seeking(Kleinman 1988).
Cultural concepts arise from local folk or professional diagnostic systems for mental and emotional distress, and they may also reflect the influence of biomedical concepts. Cultural concepts have four key features in relation to the DSM-5 nosology:
· There is seldom a one-to-one correspondence of any cultural concept with a DSM diagnostic entity; the correspondence is more likely to be one-to-many in either direction. Symptoms or behaviors that might be sorted by DSM-5 into several disorders may be included in a single folk concept, and diverse presentations that might be classified by DSM-5 as variants of a single disorder may be sorted into several distinct concepts by an indigenous diagnostic system.
· Cultural concepts may apply to a wide range of severity, including presentations that do not meet DSM criteria for any mental disorder. For example, an individual with acute grief or a social predicament may use the same idiom of distress or display the same cultural syndrome as another individual with more severe psychopathology.
· In common usage, the same cultural term frequently denotes more than one type of cultural concept. A familiar example may be the concept of “depression,” which may be used to describe a syndrome (e.g., major depressive disorder), an idiom of distress (e.g., as in the common expression “I feel depressed”), or a perceived cause (similar to “stress”).
· Like culture and DSM itself, cultural concepts may change over time in response to both local and global influences.
Cultural concepts are important to psychiatric diagnosis for several reasons:
· To avoid misdiagnosis: Cultural variation in symptoms and in explanatory models associated with these cultural concepts may lead clinicians to misjudge the severity of a problem or assign the wrong diagnosis (e.g., unfamiliar spiritual explanations may be misunderstood as psychosis)(Alarcón et al. 1999).
· To obtain useful clinical information: Cultural variations in symptoms and attributions may be associated with particular features of risk, resilience, and outcome(Lewis-Fernández et al. 2009).
· To improve clinical rapport and engagement: “Speaking the language of the patient,” both linguistically and in terms of his or her dominant concepts and metaphors, can result in greater communication and satisfaction, facilitate treatment negotiation, and lead to higher retention and adherence(Kleinman and Benson 2006).
· To improve therapeutic efficacy: Culture influences the psychological mechanisms of disorder, which need to be understood and addressed to improve clinical efficacy(Hinton and Lewis-Fernández 2010). For example, culturally specific catastrophic cognitions can contribute to symptom escalation into panic attacks(Hinton et al. 2010).
· To guide clinical research: Locally perceived connections between cultural concepts may help identify patterns of comorbidity and underlying biological substrates(Kirmayer 1991).
· To clarify the cultural epidemiology: Cultural concepts of distress are not endorsed uniformly by everyone in a given culture. Distinguishing syndromes, idioms, and explanations provides an approach for studying the distribution of cultural features of illness across settings and regions, and over time. It also suggests questions about cultural determinants of risk, course, and outcome in clinical and community settings to enhance the evidence base of cultural research(Weiss 2001).
DSM-5 includes information on cultural concepts in order to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and the comprehensiveness of clinical assessment. Clinical assessment of individuals presenting with these cultural concepts should determine whether they meet DSM-5 criteria for a specified disorder or an other specified or unspecified diagnosis. Once the disorder is diagnosed, the cultural terms and explanations should be included in case formulations; they may help clarify symptoms and etiological attributions that could otherwise be confusing. Individuals whose symptoms do not meet DSM criteria for a specific mental disorder may still expect and require treatment; this should be assessed on a case-by-case basis. In addition to the CFI and its supplementary modules, DSM-5 contains the following information and tools that may be useful when integrating cultural information in clinical practice:
· Data in DSM-5 criteria and text for specific disorders: The text includes information on cultural variations in prevalence, symptomatology, associated cultural concepts, and other clinical aspects. It is important to emphasize that there is no one-to-one correspondence at the categorical level between DSM disorders and cultural concepts. Differential diagnosis for individuals must therefore incorporate information on cultural variation with information elicited by the CFI.
· Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention: Some of the clinical concerns identified by the CFI may correspond to V codes or Z codes—for example, acculturation problems, parent-child relational problems, or religious or spiritual problems.
· Glossary of Cultural Concepts of Distress: Located in the Appendix, this glossary provides examples of well-studied cultural concepts of distress that illustrate the relevance of cultural information for clinical diagnosis and some of the interrelationships among cultural syndromes, idioms of distress, and causal explanations