A performer experiences psychological features, which are being acted upon by the certain factors; (i.e. biological history, genetics, culture, society, developmental history, etc…) . and the perception of the coach (observers) judgement regarding the performers’ behavior. The cognitive –affective personality system in then activated organizing potential responses, and cognitions associated with the psychological features, as well as being influenced by (i.e. biological history, genetics, culture, society, developmental history, etc…). The performer begins to develop alternative responses and out comes relevant to if –then scenarios that the performer identified. Concurrently dealing with the perception of how the coach (observer) will judge his performance. The process is fluid and can be changed when the people involved change their feelings and/or behaviors. Additional the process can change when the performer becomes aware of the tendency to react to a situation or stimulus. Once the individual understands his/her pattern on tendency to react it may change the consequences, which intern changes the performers’ reality.
Mischel and Yoda (1995) identified five cognitive-affective units that “influence how human beings process information. The five units are: 1) encoding, 2) beliefs and expectations, 3) goals/values, 4) affect, 5) competencies and self- regulation”. Understanding how performers individually process this information as it relates to situational and environmental stimulus is paramount to understanding how the personality of the performers’ personality interacts with the environment. Each of the five units may be more easily understood by the following explanation:
Encoding is the process performers use to determine how information is processed, stored, and used. Beliefs/expectations is what outcomes an individual expects from their actions. Goals/values are the performers’ life goals and rewards for performing an expected behavior . Affect describes how a person reacts emotionally to situations or triggers. Competencies/self-regulation describe the general intelligence, knowledge, and abilities of the performer. These units vary between individuals and personality develops according to how these cognitive-affective qualities interact with situational variables and the environment (Cognitive Affective Processing System, n.d.).
These five units can be used to help solidify the process the performer goes through to better understand how the performer’s personality interacts with the environment.