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Exam

Exam

1) A physiological and mental response to something in your environment that makes you uncomfortable is defined as ________.

A) stress

B) a stressor

C) eustress

D) hypostress

2) A factor that produces stress is called ________.

A) eustress

B) hypostress

C) a stressor

D) a tensor

3) Eustress refers to ________.

A) high stress levels leading to disease.

B) low stress levels leading to impaired performance.

C) stress levels that lead to improved performance.

D) low stress levels leading to fatigue

4) The main stress hormone released by the endocrine system is ________.

A) epinephrine

B) ghrelin

C) insulin

D) cortisol

5) All of the hormones below are released by the body during the fight-or-flight response except ________.

A) leptin

B) epinephrine

C) cortisol

D) norepinephrine

6) The ________ is responsible for activating the fight-or-flight response.

A) sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system

B) central nervous system

C) parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system

D) peripheral nervous system

7) People with Type B behavior pattern are generally ________.

A) impatient and aggressive

B) hostile

C) overweight

D) easygoing

8) Individuals with Type ________ behavior are prone to worry, anxiety, and discomfort when interacting with others.

A) A

B) B

C) C

D) D

9) A potential negative health effect of stress is ________.

A) lowered blood pressure

B) increased mental alertness

C) lowered disease resistance

D) increased plasma volume

10) The fight-or-flight response occurs during which stage of the general adaptation syndrome?

A) alarm stage

B) acceptance stage

C) resistance stage

D) exhaustion stage

11) According to Selye, the body is most susceptible to disease during the ________ of the general adaptation syndrome.

A) alarm stage

B) denial stage

C) resistance stage

D) exhaustion stage

12) The body’s ability to change and adapt in stressful situations is known as ________.

A) burnout

B) allostasis

C) homeostasis

D) general adaptation

13) The point at which the body becomes unable to respond appropriately to stress is termed ________

A) eustress

B) burnout

C) allostatic load

D) the fight-or-flight response

14) A loss of physical, emotional, and mental energy that can lead to illness and emotional exhaustion is the phenomenon called ________.

A) allostatic load

B) burnout

C) fight-or-flight response

D) overcompensation

15) ________ is a stress-reduction technique that involves contracting and relaxing muscle groups.

A) Meditation

B) Deep breathing

C) Progressive relaxation training

D) Visualization

True/False Questions A = True B = False

16) The factor that produces stress is called eustress.

17) Eustress is defined as a level of stress that results in improved performance.

18) Cortisol increases production of epinephrine and norepinephrine and suppresses the immune system.

19) Males experience a different physiological response to stress than females.

20) People with Type A behavior pattern respond well to stress.

21) People with Type B behavior pattern generally do not respond greatly to stress.

22) People with Type D behavior pattern are at a low risk for heart disease.

23) Gender differences impact the way we respond to stressors.

24) Having poor time-management skills can lead to stress.

25) More than 75% of all physician visits are for stress-related complaints.

26) Some people develop migraine headaches in response to chronic stress.

27) During the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the body is less susceptible to disease or injury.

28) A classic example of stress that can be avoided is over-commitment.

29) Breathing exercises are a simple means of achieving relaxation.

30) Stress causes Heart disease, high blood pressure , divorce, and reduces chances for success.

Chapter 12 Exercise: The Environment and Special Populations

31) Humans regulate their body temperature around ________.

A) 97°F (35°C)

B) 98.6°F (37°C)

C) 99°F (39°C)

D) 93°F (33°C)

32) Which of the following is an indication of impending heat illness?

A) nausea

B) profuse sweating

C) cold, clammy skin

D) hunger

33) Which of the following is the major mechanism of heat loss during exercise?

A) conduction

B) radiation

C) evaporation

D) diffusion

34) At a given metabolic rate and heat production, which of the following exercises would allow the most cooling through convection?

A) running

B) walking

C) cycling

D) lifting weights

35) During exercise, body temperature rises to the highest level in which of the following environmental conditions?

A) high temperature / low humidity

B) high temperature / high humidity

C) low temperature / high humidity

D) low temperature / low humidity

36) Loss of body heat caused by wind movement is called ________.

A) conduction

B) radiation

C) convection

D) evaporation

37) The best way to determine whether environmental conditions are imposing a heat load on your body during exercise is to monitor your ________.

A) breathing

B) sweat rate

C) heart rate

D) skin temperature

38) The body’s physiological adaptation for the purpose of dissipating heat is called ________.

A) growth

B) habituation

C) acclimatization

D) homeostasis

39) Acclimatization to heat stress occurs in approximately ________.

A) 3-4 days

B) 10-12 days

C) 16-20 days

D) >3 weeks

40) Muscle spasms and twitching limbs together are signs of what temperature-induced condition?

A) heat cramps

B) heat exhaustion

C) heat stroke

D) dehydration

41) Which of the following is characterized by weakness, fatigue, decreased blood pressure, blurred vision, and pale, clammy skin?

A) heat cramps

B) heat exhaustion

C) heat stroke

D) hypothermia

42) Failure to sweat, limp muscles, seizures, and vomiting are signs of which temperature-induced condition?

A) heat cramps

B) heat exhaustion

C) heat stroke

D) sarcopenia

43) All of the following are common conditions in heat illness except ________.

A) initiated by exercise

B) significant loss of water

C) increased heat storage by the body

D) increased urine output

44) Some combination of heat production and warm clothing is necessary to maintain body temperature at ambient temperatures of less than ________.

A) 80°F

B) 60°F

C) 40°F

D) 32°F

45) The best strategy for dressing to exercise in the cold is to wear ________.

A) the thickest garment available

B) light-colored clothes

C) clothing that retards moisture penetration

D) layers of clothing

46) ________ is not a suitable fabric as the base layer of clothing when you are exercising in the cold.

A) Wool

B) Silk

C) Thinsulate

D) Cotton

47) The primary concern with exercise at high altitude is ________.

A) the decreased temperature

B) the lack of oxygen in the air

C) the lower barometric pressure, limiting oxygen transport in the blood

D) a loss of appetite

48) No reduction in VO2max is noticed until you reach an elevation of approximately ________ feet.

A) 3500

B) 5000

C) 10,000

D) 12,000

49) Which of the following occurs to help the body cope with the stress of altitude?

A) decreased heart rate

B) increased breathing rate

C) both decreased heart rate and increased breathing rate

D) increased heart rate

50) Which of the following is not a symptom of acute mountain sickness ?

A) severe headache

B) nausea

C) dizziness

D) weight loss

51) Which air pollutant binds with hemoglobin and reduces blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity?

A) ozone

B) carbon monoxide

C) nitrogen

D) nitrous oxide

52) One step to take to ensure that you will maintain an exercise program even during stressful times is to ________.

A) have an “all-or-nothing” attitude

B) choose an activity that you do not enjoy

C) plan your workouts ahead of time

D) refuse to accept help

53) Which of the following exercises would NOT be recommended for a pregnant woman?

A) cycling

B) basketball

C) swimming

D) jogging

54) The loss of bone mass in women accelerates after menopause because of a decline in ________.

A) progesterone

B) estrogen

C) ghrelin

D) testosterone

55) Loss of skeletal muscle mass in aging adults is known as ________.

A) osteoporosis

B) presbyopia

C) sarcopenia

D) anemia

True/False Questions A = True B = False

56) High-intensity exercise using large muscle groups produces more body heat than low-intensity exercise involving small muscle groups.

57) The best clothing to wear during exercise in the heat would be garments that allow air to move through them freely, which promotes convection and evaporation.

58) Heat stroke is characterized by blurred vision, weakness, fatigue, and pale, clammy skin.

59) Exercise in temperatures below freezing can damage lung tissue.

60) The greater the altitude, the greater the reduction in VO2max.

61) The primary agents of air pollution that affect exercise performance are ozone and nitrogen.

62) Rates of physical activity tend to drop during life-change activities such as starting college or getting married.

63) The loss of skeletal muscle is associated with the loss in bone mass.

64) 20) Bone mass peaks between 20 and 30 years of age.

65) A safe exercise for pregnant women is any exercise that involves lying on their back for

Chapter 13 Preventing Exercise-Related and Unintentional Injuries

Multiple Choice Questions

66) All of the following elements are major causes of exercise-related injury except ________.

A) misalignment of arms and wrists

B) improper training techniques

C) alignment problems of the feet and legs

D) improper shoes

67) Too much exercise and not enough recovery time is referred to as ________.

A) supercompensation

B) overtraining syndrome

C) fartlek training

D) DOMS

68) To avoid injury, it is recommended that you increase your exercise intensity by no more than ________.

A) 20% over a 2-week period

B) 10% over a 2-week period

C) 20% over a 4-week period

D) 10% over a 4-week period

69) A primary factor in aerobic dance injury would be ________.

A) inconsistent weekly exercise

B) dancing on wooden floors

C) poorly fitting shoes

D) beginning with a 5-minute warm-up

70) All of the following are extrinsic risk factors for a sports injury except ________.

A) type of activity

B) equipment

C) environment

D) gender

71) Which of the following is not an intrinsic risk factor for a sports injury?

A) age

B) body size

C) intensity of activity

D) bone density

72) Back pain is related to which of the following?

A) bed rest

B) high blood pressure

C) inadequate muscle strength in the abdomen and lower back

D) aerobic exercise

73) Which of the following plays a major role in preventing back pain?

A) exercise

B) increasing body fat

C) reducing hip flexibility

D) ballistic stretching

74) Pain developing immediately after exercise that was done for too long or too intensely is referred to as ________.

A) delayed-onset muscle soreness

B) acute muscle soreness

C) overtraining syndrome

D) muscular distension

75) Pain developing 24-48 hours after exercise is referred to as ________.

A) delayed-onset muscle soreness

B) acute muscle soreness

C) overtraining syndrome

D) post-exercise distension

76) A ________ is characterized by swelling, many torn muscle fibers, and extreme pain upon movement.

A) first-degree strain

B) first-degree sprain

C) second-degree strain

D) third-degree sprain

77) ________ occur(s) when muscles are overstretched or forced to shorten against a heavy weight.

A) Muscle strains

B) Tendonitis

C) Ligament sprains

D) Cartilage tears

78) The primary means of preventing ligament sprains is to ________.

A) wear a joint brace

B) consume large amounts of protein

C) avoid intense exercise

D) refrain from activities that place a strain on joints

79) A ________ is damage to a ligament.

A) strain

B) sprain

C) splint

D) split

80) Which injury would be treated using arthroscopic surgery?

A) tendonitis

B) first-degree sprain

C) torn cartilage

D) DOMS

81) Patellofemoral pain syndrome is caused by ________.

A) a bout of excessively long or intense exercise

B) excessive force applied to the knee joint

C) poorly aligned quadriceps muscles

D) inflammation of a tendon

82) Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a ________ problem caused by overuse or by being overweight.

A) foot

B) knee

C) cervical

D) lower back

83) You can reduce your chances of developing patellofemoral pain by ________.

A) tightening your triceps muscles

B) strengthening your quadriceps muscles

C) strengthening your hamstring muscles

D) lengthening your latissimus dorsi muscles

84) The impact of the foot on a running surface is approximately ________ times the body weight of the runner.

A) 2.5

B) 5

C) 7.5

D) 10

85) Stress fractures are most likely to occur in ________.

A) the hip bones

B) bones of the wrist and hand

C) long bones of the foot

D) bones of the knee

86) Which muscle is most likely to be involved in a shin splint injury?

A) biceps brachii

B) tibialis anterior

C) latissimus dorsi

D) gluteus minimus

87) RICE stands for rest, ice, compression, and ________.

A) elevation

B) exercise

C) extension

D) eversion

88) Cryokinetics is a rehabilitative treatment based on ________.

A) aggressive range-of-motion exercises

B) temporary immobilization

C) heat application

D) ice application

89) A primary risk factor for unintentional injury is ________.

A) bad luck

B) an unsafe attitude

C) exercising caution

D) being aware of your surroundings

90) First aid for ________ involves using the Heimlich maneuver.

A) concussion

B) poisoning

C) choking

D) bleeding

True/False Questions A = True B = False

91) One of the primary causes of injuries in aerobic dance is improper shoes.

92) Acute muscle soreness refers to pain occurring 24-48 hours after exercise.

93) Delayed-onset muscle soreness can be prevented by lowering training intensity and duration.

94) Eccentric muscle actions are more likely than concentric actions to lead to delayed-onset muscle soreness.

95) Strains are associated with stretched or damaged ligaments.

96) Tendonitis refers to soreness from tears and damage to overused muscle.

97) Shin splints are due to stress placed on the lower leg, causing bones to split.

98) Stress fractures result from constant irritation to bones in the lower leg, which results in inflammation of the muscles and tendons.

99) Unintentional injuries are the number-one killer of people aged 15-34 in the United States.

100) Alcohol is a contributing factor in half of all drowning deaths of adolescent men.

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