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Environmental Health

Environmental Health

In environmental health, the term toxin refers to a toxic substance that _______________.
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is naturally produced by a plant or animal

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occurs in the occupational setting

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results from human activity

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a man-made product introduced into the environment due to human activity

1 points

Question 2

In toxicity testing in rodents, the LD50 is a dose that is _______________.
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acutely fatal to 50 percent of test animals

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fatal to 50 percent of test animals within a 90-day period

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fatal to 50 percent of test animals after lifetime bioaccumulation

1 points

Question 3

Which of the following is not characteristic of a health impact assessment?
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It evaluates a site or activity as it is, rather than looking forward in time

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It includes social and economic factors in the assessment

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It incorporates input from community members

1 points

Question 4

An exposure pathway connects _______________ to _______________.
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an exposure / a change in tissue structure or function

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inhalation / absorption

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the environmental source of a contaminant / the point of exposure

1 points

Question 5

The three major routes of human exposure to environmental contaminants are _______________.
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by air, water, and soil

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environmental, occupational, and residential

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ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact

1 points

Question 6

The phrase contact with the human envelope is a common definition of _______________.
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absorption

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disposition

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exposure

1 points

Question 7

The quantity of a toxicant (or its breakdown product) that is available to interact with some vulnerable tissue in the body is called the _______________.
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absorbed dose

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biologically effective dose

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body burden

1 points

Question 8

The body burden of a chemical in the body reflects the net effect of _______________.
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absorption and biological effectiveness

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synergism and antagonism

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the processes of toxicokinetics

1 points

Question 9

Bioaccumulation is the _______________.
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gradual building up of a chemical in the tissue of an organism

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increase of concentrations of a chemical at higher levels of a food pyramid

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movement of a chemical from water to living tissue

1 points

Question 10

Which of the following is an example of a biomarker?
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Body mass index calculated from measured height and weight

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Concentration of a pesticide in blood

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Inhalation rate in liters per hour

1 points

Question 11

The Ames test is a test of a chemical’s _______________.
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acute lethality, and is conducted in rodents

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mutagenicity, and is conducted in bacteria

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teratogenic potential, and is conducted mammalian cells

1 points

Question 12

Exposure modeling is used to estimate the _______________.
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biologically effective dose of a toxicant

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fate and transport of a toxicant

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ingestion of, inhalation of, or dermal contact with a toxicant

1 points

Question 13

Conceptually, a reference dose is a dose that has no adverse effects in _______________.
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sensitive subpopulations over a long-term exposure

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sensitive subpopulations over a short-term exposure

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the general population over a long-term exposure

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the general population over a short-term exposure

1 points

Question 14

Which of the following is one of the major processes which together make up toxicokinetics?
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Bioconcentration

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Distribution

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Mutation

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Synergism

1 points

Question 15

In doing a risk assessment for a chemical, the usual assumption is that _______________.
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carcinogenicity has a threshold; non-cancer effects do not

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non-cancer effects have a threshold; carcinogenicity does not

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both carcinogenicity and non-cancer effects have thresholds

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neither carcinogenicity nor non-cancer effects has a threshold

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